Hormone list

Discussion in 'Anabolic Steroids' started by bigrobbie, Oct 28, 2010.

  1. bigrobbie

    bigrobbie MuscleHead

    Sep 19, 2010
    515
    135
    Here is a list of several hormones I thought many might enjoy reading about.This is about as basic as it gets (if a hormone can ever be refered to as "basic")



    I combined the hard work and expertise of others to put this hormone list together:

    Hormone Quick Reference Guide;

    (References are listed at the end of post)

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Hormone

    Organic substance secreted by plants and animals that functions in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. Hormones carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. The classical view of hormones is that they are transmitted to their targets in the bloodstream after discharge from the glands that secrete them. This mode of discharge (directly into the bloodstream) is called endocrine secretion. The meaning of the term hormone has been extended beyond the original definition of a blood-borne secretion, however, to include similar regulatory substances that are distributed by diffusion across cell membranes instead of by a blood system.

    Steroid Hormone

    Any of a group of hormones that belong to the class of known as steroids; they are secreted by three “steroid glands”—the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovaries—and during pregnancy by the placenta. All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol. They are transported through the bloodstream to the cells of various target organs where they carry out the regulation of a wide range of physiological functions.

    Aldosterone

    a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone serves as the principal regulator of the salt and water balance of the body and thus is categorized as a mineralocorticoid. It also has a small effect on the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.

    Sex Hormone

    A chemical substance produced by a or other organ that has an effect on the sexual features of an organism. Like many other kinds of hormones, sex hormones may also be artificially synthesized. androgen; estrogen.

    Androgen

    Any of a group of hormones that primarily influence the growth and development of the male reproductive system. The predominant and most active androgen is testosterone, which is produced by the male testes. The other androgens, which support the functions of testosterone, are produced mainly by the —the outer portion of the adrenal glands—and only in relatively small quantities.

    Testosterone

    Hormone produced by the male testis that is responsible for development of the male sex organs and masculine characteristics, including facial hair and deepening of the voice. Testosterone was isolated from testicular extracts in 1935. Its discovery followed that of an androgen (male hormone) called androsterone, which was isolated from urine in 1931. However, testosterone proved to be more potent than androsterone, which was later shown to be a biochemical product (a metabolite) of testosterone. A healthy man produces about 5mg, 1.8 × 10−4 ounces, of testosterone daily.

    Estrogen

    Any of a group of hormones that primarily influence the female reproductive tract in its development, maturation, and function. There are three major hormones—estradiol, estrone, and estriol—among the estrogens, and estradiol is the predominant one

    Progesterone

    hormone secreted by the that functions mainly to regulate the condition of the inner lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Progesterone is produced by the ovaries, placenta, and adrenal glands. The term is used to describe progesterone and synthetic steroid hormones with progesterone-like properties, such as the progestogen levonorgestrel.

    Prolactin

    A protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland of mammals that acts with other hormones to initiate secretion of milk by the mammary glands. On the evolutionary scale, prolactin is an ancient hormone serving multiple roles in mediating the care of progeny (sometimes called the “parenting” hormone). It is a large protein molecule that is synthesized in and secreted from lactotrophs, which constitute about 20 percent of the anterior pituitary gland and are located largely in the lateral regions of the gland.

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    One of two gonadotropic hormones ( hormones concerned with the regulation of the activity of the gonads, or ) produced by the . FSH, a glycoprotein operating in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH), stimulates development of the graafian follicle, a small, egg-containing vesicle in the ovary of the female mammal; in the male, it promotes the development of the tubules of the testes and the differentiation of sperm. Though in the male the presence of FSH is necessary for the maturation of spermatozoa, additional FSH may not be required for months because testosterone can maintain this activity. In the female, however, there is a rhythmic, or cyclical, increase and decrease of FSH, which is essential for monthly ovulation. luteinizing hormone; menstruation.

    Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    One of two gonadotropic hormones ( hormones concerned with the regulation of the gonads, or ) that is produced by the . LH is a glycoprotein and operates in conjunction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Following the release of the egg (ovulation) in the female, LH promotes the transformation of the graafian follicle (a small egg-containing vesicle in the ovary) into the corpus luteum, an that secretes progesterone. In the male, LH stimulates the development of the of the testes, which secrete testosterone, a male . The production of LH is cyclical in nature (especially in the female). follicle-stimulating hormone; menstruation.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Growth Hormone

    Peptide hormone secreted by the of the pituitary gland. It stimulates the growth of essentially all tissues of the body, including bone. GH is synthesized and secreted by anterior pituitary cells called somatotrophs, which release between one and two milligrams of the hormone each day. GH is vital for normal physical growth in children; its levels rise progressively during childhood and peak during the growth spurt that occurs in puberty.

    Insulin

    Hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first isolated as a pancreatic extract in 1921 by the Canadian scientists Sir Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best.

    Peptide

    Any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of living organisms. Peptide molecules are composed of two or more amino acids joined through amide formation involving the of each and the of the next. The chemical bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms of each amide group is called a peptide bond. Some or all of the , which connect the consecutive triplets of atoms in the chain regarded as the backbone of the molecule, can be broken by partial or complete hydrolysis of the compound. This reaction, producing smaller peptides and finally the individual amino acids, is commonly used in studies of the composition and structure of peptides and proteins.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Neurohormone

    Any of a group of substances produced by specialized cells () structurally typical of the nervous, rather than of the endocrine, system. The neurohormones pass along nerve-cell extensions (axons) and are released into the bloodstream at special regions called . Neurohormones thus constitute a linkage between sensory stimuli (events or conditions perceived by the ) and chemical responses (endocrine secretions that act on other tissues of the or on tissues of other systems, such as those involved with excretion or reproduction).

    Serotonin

    (also called 5-hydroxytryptamine)

    A chemical substance that is derived from the amino acid tryptophan. It occurs in the brain, intestinal tissue, blood platelets, and mast cells and is a constituent of many venoms, including wasp venom and toad venom. Serotonin is a potent vasoconstrictor and functions as a neurotransmitter. It is concentrated in certain areas of the brain, especially the midbrain and the hypothalamus, and changes in its concentration are associated with several mood disorders. Some cases of mental depression are apparently caused by reduced quantities or reduced activity of serotonin in the brain.

    Melatonin

    Hormone secreted by the pineal gland, a tiny situated at the centre of the brain. Melatonin was discovered in 1958 by American physician Aaron B. Lerner and his colleagues at School of Medicine. Melatonin, a derivative of the tryptophan, is produced in humans, other mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.

    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    Two separate but related hormones secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. They are also produced at the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres, where they serve as chemical mediators for conveying the nerve impulses to effector organs. Chemically, the two compounds differ only slightly; and they exert similar pharmacological actions, which resemble the effects of stimulation of the . They are, therefore, classified as sympathomimetic agents. The active secretion of the contains approximately 80 percent epinephrine and 20 percent norepinephrine; but this proportion is reversed in the sympathetic nerves, which contain predominantly norepinephrine.

    Cortisol

    An organic compound belonging to the steroid family that is the principal hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. It is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and is used for the palliative treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

    Corticoid

    Any of a group of more than 40 belonging to the steroid family and present in the cortex of the . Of these substances, about six are hormones, secreted into the bloodstream and carried to other tissues, where they elicit physiological responses. (The other corticoids, inactive as hormones, appear to be intermediates in the biosynthesis of the hormones from cholesterol.) The hormones are categorized, according to their principal effects on the target organs, as either glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoids.

    Cortisone

    A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Introduced in 1948 for its anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, it has been largely replaced by related compounds that do not produce certain undesirable side effects. Can inhibit muscle growth.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    I hope this is information that some may reference and help them with any questions. Either way, I wanted to make a quick "basic" reference for some of the main hormones discussed almost daily!

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Web References:

    Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia

    serotonin (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

    Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia



    Assorted References:

    major treatment (in hormone (biochemistry): Hormones of the reproductive system

    animal behaviour (in reproductive behaviour (zoology): Hormonal influences; in reproductive behaviour (zoology): Parental care; in crustacean (arthropod): Hormones; in animal reproductive system; in animal reproductive system: Role of gonads in hormone cycles )

    growth (in growth (biology): Internal factors; in human development (biology): Hormones and growth )

    gynecomastia (in gynecomastia (pathology))



    Reproduction References:

    medical research-(in history of medicine: Sex hormones)

    pregnancy (in pregnancy: Symptoms and signs; biological tests; in pregnancy: Endocrine system )

    premenstrual syndrome (in premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (medicine))



    People References:

    Adolf Butenandt (German biochemist)

    Edward Adelbert Doisy (American biochemist)

    Frank Rattray Lillie (American zoologist)

    >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>
     
    Last edited: Oct 28, 2010
  2. Bowhunter

    Bowhunter Senior Member

    Oct 12, 2010
    149
    2
    Good list of terms everyone should be familiar with!!
     
  3. cyto33

    cyto33 MuscleHead

    Sep 15, 2010
    347
    2
    this is a great list for noobs to use to get use to the meanings. very cool post
     
  4. JIrish88

    JIrish88 New Member

    Jun 18, 2011
    2
    0
    Thanks for the post
     
  5. Ms.Wetback

    Ms.Wetback VIP Lady Member

    Sep 27, 2010
    1,604
    121
    Nice list.
     
  6. bigrobbie

    bigrobbie MuscleHead

    Sep 19, 2010
    515
    135
    I hope it's helpful....thanks guys for the kind words.
     
  7. stpete

    stpete Senior Member

    Oct 30, 2012
    105
    4
    Nice list!!
     
  8. big7

    big7 New Member

    Dec 10, 2011
    4
    0
    thanks for the list
     
  9. IronSoul

    IronSoul TID Board Of Directors

    Apr 2, 2013
    5,374
    1,224
    Nice list big rob! Thanks brother. This will be good for a lot of new people learning
     
    bigrobbie likes this.
  10. tank1978

    tank1978 Member

    Mar 31, 2014
    11
    0
    Nice list good article
     
  11. Ironmike72

    Ironmike72 VIP Member

    Aug 13, 2012
    216
    8
    Great read Bro! Thanks!
     
  12. boomville

    boomville New Member

    Jan 2, 2013
    4
    1
    Love this quick reference guide, nice work!
     
    bigrobbie likes this.

Share This Page